My uncle fled Palestine (together with his family) in 1938 from pogroms arranged by the Palestinians during the Intifada, which began in 1936. Three years later, in July 1941, he was killed (along with his wife and children, along with three brothers, a sister and their mother, my grandmother) in the massacre that the Ukrainian fascists arranged in the city of Lviv, as the German Nazis occupied this city. In total, that month, 25,000 Jews of Lviv were killed, or 10% of the Jewish population of the city.
«The expulsion of Jews from East Jerusalem began during the pogroms of 1929, when the crowd, incited by Muslim preachers, began to kill Jews, plundering and burning their property. Part of the Jewish population moved from the Muslim quarter to the Jewish quarter. So, for example, did the deported residents of the «Rand Yard», whose houses were burned. Others began to leave the Old City altogether, moving to new Jewish neighborhoods, growing outside the walls. And then the intifada began in 1936-1939, when the Jews fled from East Jerusalem, leaving all their possessions. This part of the city was completely abandoned by the Jews. Then the «Galician yard» was left, and the yeshiva «Ateret Cohanim».
To speed up the flight of the Jews, Muslims burned synagogues. As a result, most residents of the Jewish quarter were also forced to leave their homes and flee. So, by 1948, it was home to no more than 1,700 Jews who concentrated around the main synagogues. And their fear was great, although the British fenced the Jewish quarter, like a ghetto.
At the same time, between 1936 and 1939, Muslim pogromists expelled Yemeni Jews from Kfar-Shiloah (Arabic Silwan), plundering their property as usual. «
«The mandate of the League of Nations: when the League of Nations granted the United Kingdom a mandate for Palestine in 1922, it explicitly stipulated that the Palestine Administration» would encourage, in cooperation with the Jewish Agency, the direct settlement of Jews on land, including state lands and lands unfit for cultivation, social goals «(art. 6).
«British policy, however, followed a different course, yielding to the extremist Arab opposition to the above-mentioned Mandate position. Of the approximately 750,000 dunams of cultivated state lands until 1949, the Arabs were allocated 350,000 or almost half, and to the Jews only 17,000 dunums. This clearly contradicted the terms of the mandate. «
«Possessing huge arrays, most of which they could not cultivate, these (Arab) owners began selling surplus land at speculative prices» … «hundreds of millions of dollars were paid by Jewish buyers to Arab landowners … (Report of the Royal Commission on Palestine, 1937)».
«Ghassan Kanafani admits that if in the early 1920s, ¾ of the land was acquired from (Arab) owners living abroad, by the early 1930s, their share was already less than 15%, while 63% of land was purchased from local landowners and more about ¼ from the peasants themselves. … land prices in Palestine increased 50% from 1910 to 1944.»
“as a result of such transactions Arab tenant-farmers were displaced (on one year’s notice), compensation in cash or other land was paid, as required by the 1922 Protection of Cultivators Ordinance; the Jewish land-buying associations often paid more than the law required (Pollack and Boehm, The Keren Kayemeth Le-Israel). Of 688 such tenants between 1920 and 1930, 526 remained in agricultural occupations, some 400 of them finding other land (Palestine Royal Commission Report, 1937, Chapter 9, para. 61)”.
Jews who bought land in Palestine did not have the physical ability (e.g. police) to force Arab tenants to leave the land. Part of the Arab tenants remained on the lands acquired by the Jews, until 1948, when they left these lands. The power to evict the tenants had only the British authorities, cooperated with the Arab landlords. Both the Jews who paid huge sums of money for the land, and Arab tenants, turned victims of large-scale British-Palestinian land fraud.
But on the other hand:
«The work of Israeli economist Jacob Metser shows that the Arab sector of Mandate Palestine has been intensively developing: the average growth rate was 4.5% per year (which is lower than the growth rate in the Jewish sector but higher than the global rates and rates in neighboring Arab countries), and The peak of this growth occurred precisely at the beginning of the 30s».
We have to admit that the eviction of tenants from their lands was not the reason, but rather the pretext for the typically Islamist behavior of the majority of Palestinians, led by the Husseini clan. The main purpose of the pogroms and the forced eviction of Jews from Eastern Jerusalem, Yafo, Tzfat or Hebron was Islam based «cleansing» of Palestine from Jewish «filth» and the preventing of Jewish immigration.
Let’s note by the way, that at the same time there was illegal immigration to Mandate Palestine from neighboring Arab countries, which British officials hid and did not include in the statistics. The indirect calculation, taking into account the rate of natural growth and the absolute actual growth of the Arab population of Palestine, gives a figure of 100,000 illegal immigrants from 1922 to 1944.
One of these «illegals» was the Syrian Islamist militant Iz ad Din al Qassam, who at first pretended to be a peaceful instructor in religious schools in Akko, then called for the killing of Jews and Britons and created an illegal organization. Thus, he challenged the leadership of Amin al-Husseini in Palestine. Unlike Amin, who maintained excellent relations with the British administration, Al Qassam really began to kill not only Jews, but also the British. As a result, the British killed him, perhaps, on the tip of Amin. The well-preserved Al Qassam Memorial is located at the foot of Mount Carmel in the place where the British killed him, and is clearly visible from the road Haifa-Yokneam.
Probably, under the pressure of Al Qassam’s supporters, Amin al Husseini ceased to obey the British administration, and reoriented to Hitler. As a result, Amin lost the favor of the British and was forced to flee Palestine. Amin tried to control the Palestinian uprising from Damascus, but after the defeat left for Baghdad, and eventually landed in Berlin.
In July 1941, Amin al Husseini introduced a memo to the Nazi leaders, in which he proposed «to cleanse the entire Middle East from Jews», and in November of the same year, during a personal meeting with Hitler, received «OK» for this action, plus Hitler’s promise to invade the Middle East and crack down on the Jews. In fact, Hitler was interested in seizing Middle Eastern oil, but at the same time he had to convince the Arabs that he was not going to establish his colonial rule. Therefore, the reason for the upcoming invasion was the genocide of Jews, which both Hitler and the Arabs so desired.
On the other hand, during the uprising of 1936-1939, a Palestinian grouping, led by the clan of Nashashibi, was opposed to extremists. Their «peace detachments» have entered into armed confrontation with Al Husseini backed extremists, seeking to protect Palestinians from looting and murder by armed Palestinian bands and Arab invaders from outside. During this internecine war, more Palestinians were killed than in battles with British troops and Jewish self-defense. About 50,000 Palestinians and Jews fled the country, fleeing civil war and economic decline.
Nashashibi grouping appealed to the leaders of Yishuv with the proposal of the union, with the goal of expelling the British from the country. In view of the expansion of the Nazis in Europe, the Jewish leaders did not enter into a conflict with Britain, and the British took care to disband the «detachments of peace» created by Nashashibi. Looking ahead, I note that the Palestinian supporters of peace with the Jews were active in 1947-48. According to Benny Morris, 32 Palestinian mukhtars signed «peace treaties» with their Jewish neighbors.
For their part, the leaders of Yishuv, and primarily Ben Gurion, adhered to the policy of «restraint», not responding to attacks of the Arabs. This was the policy of Yishuv in 1936-39, and then in 1946-48. In the «Season» operation, Ben Gurion tried to eliminate the Jewish opponents of his course toward an alliance with the moderate Palestinians. Only in April 1948, when Amin al Husseini managed to establish a blockade of Jewish cities, the Jews were forced to launch an offensive («Dalet Plan»).
In 1946, the British brought Amin al-Husseini from Europe with an obvious goal: to remove the Nashashibis from leading the Palestinians and to prevent a possible union between Jews and Palestinians directed against Britain. They fully succeeded in this goal, thanks to Amin al-Husseini and his Nakba. In fact, Amin initiated the Nakba in order to eliminate his political rivals who advocated peace with the Jews on conditions favorable to the Palestinians, when Transjordan could become part of Greater Palestine. Whole his policy was to aggravate the conflict with the Jews at any cost, and to involve the Arab neighbors and the UK on the side of the Palestinians. And indeed, after Nakba the path to peace was closed, perhaps forever.
But let’s go back; in 1937, «the Peel Commission recommended that Palestine be divided into two states. At the same time, the Jewish state was to receive most of Galilee and a strip along the coastal plain, up to modern Ashdod (a total of 20% of the territory of Palestine or 5 thousand km²). The Arabs received the entire modern West Bank, the Negev and Gaza including surroundings. These lands were to become a united Arab state, which also included Jordan. « (My note: the author of the cited article is at odds with mathematics: the total territory of the Mandate, including Jordan, was 120,000 square kilometers, so 5,000 square kilometers allocated to the Jews comprised less than 4% of the entire territory. Today, Israel occupies 17% of the territory of the «Greater Palestine»).
The Palestinians disagreed with these conditions, demanded the immediate creation of a 100% Arab state under the tutelage of Britain, and proceeded to a new stage of the uprising. After suppressing the insurrection by force, the British adopted a more rigid line against the Jews: «Simultaneously with the brutal suppression of the uprising by military methods, Britain is taking the course to eliminate the causes of discontent among the Palestinian Arabs — that is, to restrict Jewish immigration.»
In the White Paper of 1939, the British almost completely accepted the demands of the Palestinians:
«The White Paper of 1939 is the report of the British colonial minister Malcolm McDonald to the British Parliament on the policy of the government regarding the British Mandate in Palestine. It was released in response to the demands of the Arab population of Palestine to completely prohibit Jewish immigration and the acquisition of land by Jews. Basic provisions of the White Paper:
-Within 10 years after the publication of the Paper, a single bipartite state of Jews and Arabs will be created in Palestine.
-The Jewish immigration quota for the next five years will be 75,000 people. At the first stage, immigration will amount to 25 thousand people (to help European Jews), and within 5 years immigration will be allowed for 10 thousand Jews each year, a total of 75 thousand people. In addition, the increase in immigration quotas will depend on Arab consent.
-Restriction on the purchase of land by Jews (up to 95% of the land of Palestine will be banned for sale to Jews «
Despite such a turn in British politics, Amin al Husseini continued his way to Hitler.
So, in the critical period when the Nazis were preparing for a «final solution to the Jewish question», the Palestinians played a key role in creating «suitable» conditions for the genocide of Jews, namely: they blocked Jews from taking refuge in their legally acquired land in Palestine.
Jews invested up to a billion dollars in the purchase of a shelter in the event of an impending catastrophe, the idea of which was already in the air of Europe. The Palestinian landlords took the money, and then decided to take away the land they sold, by blocking the opportunity for buyers to take possession. British colonial officials also profited from this land scam, and acted hand in hand with Palestinian partners.
As a result, the Nazis changed their original plan for «solving the Jewish problem» by the resettlement of the Jews of Europe in the territories of Palestine and Madagascar. A memo from Amin al-Husseini and his historic meeting with Hitler took place on the eve of the Wannsee conference, that is, during the detailed preparation of the genocide of the Jews.
Today, the Palestinians adhere to the same line that on the eve of World War II: incite Iran to a «final solution to the Zionist problem», that is, to the genocide of the Jews of Israel. Obviously, we will resist this «decision» with all our strength, and I cannot guarantee that the Palestinian people will not stumble again and fall into their next misfortunes. Those who really feel sorry for Palestinian children are obliged to convince the Palestinians that the best and most honest line of conduct for them is peace with Israel.