JEWS AND PALESTINIANS: A COMPARISON OF GENES
I had to discuss with anti-Semites many times. I should note that outright anti-Semitism of the old fashion manifests itself mainly in Russia and among Islamists. In the West, everything is more cultured: they are not anti-Semites, they just defend the offended Palestinians, and therefore they want to arrange genocide on the Jews.
When I ask the question why it is necessary to protect just the Palestinians, and not the Jews of Israel, who are threatened with genocide by Ayatollahs and other Islamists (while Europe helps them), then in response I hear that the Zionists are invaders, European colonialists who enslaved and expelled the Palestinians from their homeland.
Their approach is based on the idea that the Jews in their land are racially alien and therefore should have no claim to the Land of Israel.
When Hitler expounded his racist “theories”, he had an excuse: genetics as a science did not yet exist, he could fantasize whatever he wanted. For example, that the Aryans came from Atlantis to Scandinavia. If we ignore the immorality of his fantasies, then we can say that he was very wrong.
The German people have little to do with the Aryans, and personally Hitler all the more: it turned out that all of his male relatives have genes of haplogroup E. These genes are quite widespread in Austria, but even more common in the Balkan Peninsula, Greece and the Middle East. What a “Nordic type”!
Modern, usually educated, anti-Semitic racists do not have such a privilege to fantasize whatever comes into their heads. In order to give the appearance of credibility to their accusations against Jews, against Zionists and Israel, they have to ignore, hide or distort the results of scientific genetic research, counting on the fact that readers and listeners will not delve into the issue.
A classic example of deliberately defrauding the public is a book written by Tel Aviv University history professor Shlomo Zand. When he was writing the book When and How the Jewish People Was Invented, he knew the results of genetic research on this topic. He simply ignored genetics, and when somebody pointed out this fact, he announced that genetic research is racism.
Professor Sand has repeatedly stated that he is “not a liar.” I would like to ask the question: who and how much paid him for his anti-scientific propaganda essay?
Sand’s book is addressed to those Jews who would like to get rid of the remorse associated with their treacherous behaviour towards Israel. As it turned out, there are many such Jews. Thanks to their votes, influence and money, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama were elected presidents. Let’s see if Joe Biden will restore the Oslo policy and the alliance with the Islamists.
In addition, Zand’s work is used by anti-Semites of all stripes and different skin colors.
Today we have a privilege that was not available during Hitler’s time. Our task is to analyze genetic data on the topic: who are the Jews and who are the Palestinians. I tried to make it intelligible.
In the table “Genetic comparison of Jews and Palestinians” I have placed genetic data (only for male genes, we will talk about maternal genes separately) of four Middle Eastern peoples: Ashkenazi Jews, Palestinians, Saudi Arabians and Lebanese. Next, I put Armenians as representatives of the peoples of the Transcaucasus and Turkey. And then three populations of Western Europe. Firstly, West Germans (why not East Germans? Because East Germans are closer to the Slavs than to their relatives in western Germany). Then the Spaniards and Italians.
We will compare the data in this table with the “theories” of anti-Zionists. There are several such “theories”, they contradict each other, and most importantly, they contradict the data of science.
I’ll start with the oldest “theory”: the Khazar. Fifteen years ago, I learned that the prevailing opinion in Palestinian discussion forums is that Ashkenazi Jews are Khazars. When I tried to argue, I was simply banned.
What does genetic science say on this topic? Let’s look at the table, find the line “Ashkenazi Jews” and the last figure in this line: 5%. The column belongs to haplogroup Q. Of the eight populations in the column, only Jews (5%) and Lebanese (2%) have this haplogroup. Perhaps these 5% came to the Jews from the Khazars. For the sake of interest, I will inform you that this haplogroup (Q) comes from Altai and is most common among the American Indians.
Another potentially Khazar haplogroup is R1a. Ashkenazi Jews have 10% of these genes, Palestinians 1%, Arabs 5%, Lebanese 3% and Armenians 5% (column R1a).
In fact, the R1a genes, which we conditionally call “Aryan” or Iranian, could have got to the Jews back in the time of the forefather Abraham, when he was in Harran. Let’s say we got half of 10% R1a from the Khazars, 5%. Together with 5% of haplogroup Q, we get 10%. That is, 10% of Ashkenazim really have Khazar roots.
Anti-Semites demand that we have a perfectly pure race, which does not exist in nature. Let them check their own haplogroups, and make sure that all peoples are mixed to a greater or lesser extent, and then talk about Jews.
In fact, “mixing” saves peoples from degeneration and genetic death. Moreover, the “passionarity” about which Gumilev spoke begins precisely with the mixing of people of different genetics.
The most popular “theory” among anti-Semites says that Ashkenazi Jews are Germans. Shlomo Sand asserts this, despite the fact that (according to his own statement), looking at himself in the mirror, he sees a Turk. I would suggest to Zand often looking in the mirror, instead of be tempted by money.
I heard the same “theory” from the Israeli leftist racists from the Shinui party, which is backed by same-sex marriage supporters.
Well, let’s take a look at our table.
Haplogroup R1b is considered the most “European”. About half of all men in western Europe boast that they are the descendants of brutal conquerors who subjugated earlier inhabitants. The descendants of the conquered carry the genes of haplogroup I. Indeed, 47% of German men have R1b genes, while 22% have genes of haplogroup I.
But what about the Ashkenazi? 9% R1b and 4% I, for a total of 13%. And it is still a question whether these genes really got to the Jews in Europe. In fact, Palestinians have R1b at the same rate 9% as Jews, Lebanese have 8%, Armenians have 30%, and Arabs have only 2%.
Group I are indeed more common in Europe, but Lebanese have (5%) and Armenians (5%) of these genes. So the Ashkenazi European roots are in question. I advise Shlomo Zand to look in the mirror again.
The newest “theory” says that the Ashkenazim with their Yiddish language were born 1000 years ago in the Transcaucasus, somewhere at the junction of the then Armenia and Georgia. Today this small area belongs to Turkey, as the Turks drove out the Armenians.
In this area, 4 villages were discovered, where the name Ashkenaz is contained. Some quick-witted “researchers” have concluded that this is the homeland of the Ashkenazi Jews.
To cool the hot heads, historians remembered that the ancient Assyrians called the Scythians Ashkenazi. In the biblical genealogy of the forefathers, Ashkenaz is named as the son of Gomer, the son of Japheth, the son of Noah. “Noble Yafet” was considered the forefather of all the peoples of the North, that is, the inhabitants of the Caucasus, the Black Sea region, the Aryans (Iranians) and the Scythians. If Gomer is the forefather of the Cimmerians, then Ashkenaz is quite suitable for the role of the forefather of the Scythians. Jeremiah mentions in his book three kingdoms, Ashkenaz, Mani and Ararat, apparently located nearby. These countries have nothing to do with Jews.
Cunning Jews liked to attribute ancient biblical names to their new countries. For example, Sfarad (Spain), Tsarfat (France), Ashkenaz (Germany).
And so, a young immigrant from Israel, Eran Elhaik, invented a new method of analysis, which he called GPS. According to this method, the Jews came from Kurdistan about 1000 years ago. Nobody believed this, not even the author himself. His first “research results” disappeared from the Internet.
Instead, Elhaik put forward a “theory” according to which the Ashkenazi Jews emerged from the very four villages at the junction of Anatolia and Armenia, which contain a hint of the name Ashkenaz. Allegedly, the Ashkenazi invented the Yiddish language in Transcaucasia so that none of the neighbors could understand what they were saying to each other. Because the Jews, trading, deceived naive neighbors.
This “theory” was ridiculed by linguists, and Elhaik himself does not insist on it either.
Instead, he revived the Khazar hypothesis, rejected by genetic scientists. More precisely, Elhaik explained that Jews from the Caucasus moved to Khazaria, and from Khazaria to Europe. There is something substantial in this hypothesis. According to a letter of the Khazar king Joseph, Jews arrived in Khazaria from Mesopotamia, Iran and Armenia.
According to Elhaik’s calculations, 38% of Ashkenazi Jews have Caucasian genes. We should investigate this statement deeper. Let’s go back to our table. What Caucasian genes did Elhaik find in Ashkenazi Jews?
If we add up the percentages of groups J2, G and R1b, we get the notorious 38%. And why these and not other groups? Because haplogroup J1 is the most widespread Arab haplogroup, E is related to Egypt and North Africa, R1a is the Iranian and East European haplogroup.
So, let’s consider the alleged “Caucasian” haplogroups in the blood of Ashkenazi Jews. Ashkenazi have J2 19%, Palestinians 17%, Arabs 16%, and Lebanese 26%. According to Elhaik, all these peoples descended 1000 years ago from the Caucasus mountains.
Is it funny? No, it’s sad. The “Caucasian theory” of the origin of Jews is today the most popular among anti-Semites, especially those with black skin. Black Christian preachers convince their flock that blacks are the real descendants of ancient Israel, and these Jews are simply impostors from the Caucasus. They must be driven out of Palestine.
But let’s back to our analysis. Jews have 9% R1b, Palestinians 9%, Lebanese 8%, and Arabs have only 2%.
Jews have 10% G, Palestinians and Arabs 3%, and Lebanese 6%.
In fact, these three haplogroups are really related to Transcaucasia, Turkey and Canaan. Zand can look at himself in the mirror again.
Simply, these groups became Jewish not 1000 years ago, but in the most ancient times, which I conventionally call the time before Abraham. Jews were originally Caucasians as much as Semites. Most likely the J2 genes came to the Jews from Canaan. The Lebanese, who are considered the descendants of the Canaanites, are genetically closer to the Jews than to the rest of their neighbors, the Syrians and Palestinians.
Yet the Ashkenazi haplogroup G is twice as common as among the Lebanese. Perhaps this “extra” 5% should be added to the Khazar Jewish genes. Then it turns out that we are “Khazars” by 15%. Elhaik and other supporters of the Khazar hypothesis greatly (2-3 times) exaggerated the contribution of the Khazars to the Ashkenazi gene pool.
Summing up, we can say that 80% of male genes Jews received from their ancestors who lived in the Land of Israel (or Palestine).
Now let’s turn from the Jews to the Palestinians. Group J1 is considered the “main” Arab haplogroup. The Arabs of Saudi Arabia have 40% of these genes, and the Palestinians have 39%, that is, almost the same.
The Palestinian clans carefully preserve their ancestry, and most Palestinians believe that their ancestors moved to Palestine from Arabia, at different times, from the first centuries of our era to the 19th and even the 20th century.
For example, the famous Husseini clan, to which Yasser Arafat and Amin al Husseini belonged, settled in Palestine in the 7th century. The Tamimi clan, (which featured Ahed Tamimi, who bravely beat Israeli soldiers in front of television cameras), this clan moved into Palestine 400 years ago.
I know a resident of Galilee whose clan migrated from Arabia in the 19th century, receiving large tracts of land “from the Sultan” in Gaza, Jaffa, Tulkarm and Galilee. The family recently re-established a lost connection with their relatives in Jeddah, they met during the Hajj to Mecca.
The government-organized settlement of the Galilee by immigrants from Lebanon and Syria could also affect the genetic makeup of the Palestinians, increasing the percentage of men with haplogroups characteristic of Lebanon, for example J2.
And finally, the settlement of Gaza and the surrounding area by immigrants from Egypt (1830-1840) probably led to an increase in the percentage of the “Egyptian” haplogroup E.
Now it is difficult to calculate what the percentage of “local” genes is, and how many “donated” by conquerors and settlers. Moreover, immigrants from neighboring countries (Arabia, Lebanon and Syria) had a set of genes similar to the “local” ones. Israeli geneticist Doron Behar believes that about half of the Arab population of Israel and Palestine are of local origin, and half are descendants of conquerors and settlers.
So far, we have only considered male genes. But half of all nations are women. The distribution of female genes is very different from the distribution of male genes.
The general rule that genetics identified is that until the 19th century, mostly men moved around the world, while women sat at home and waited for a handsome prince from a distant land to come and take a woman / girl as his wife.
Jews were no exception to the rule. At the beginning of our era, Jewish merchants, seekers of happiness, or prisoners captured by the Romans during the uprisings and forcibly brought to Rome, all of them set out on a long journey without wives and children. Long travel is only possible for men. Not to mention costs…
In the 6-10th centuries, Jewish merchants-Radanites, who traded all along the Great Silk Road from Marseille to Xi’an, spent years on the way. Today, Chinese genetics claim that some Ashkenazi women have Chinese genes. It turns out that these merchants, having reached China, got married. Someone took their newfound wife on the way back and brought them to Europe. It looks like these Chinese women were beautiful…
Another explanation is Khazar trace in the Jewish mitochondrial DNA.
But, when Jews fled from oppression and pogroms, for example, they moved from Germany to Poland, they strived to save the family.
Genetic studies of most Jewish groups have shown that Jewish women mainly come from the places where Jews settled. It is believed that both Ashkenazi and Sephardic women are primarily of Italian descent.
The waves of conquerors that swept over Palestine left behind a male genetic trace. Muslims, crusaders, Salah ad Din’s army, Mamluks, Khorezmians, Mongol-Tatars, Seljuk Turks, Ottoman Turks – all these armies did not drag a wagon train with their wives and children. The women were found on the spot and did not ask their consent to have sex. Children were born from local women and alien men.
When Mahmoud Abbas declares that the Palestinians are the descendants of the ancient Canaanites, then he is half right (taking into consideration the female half). As elsewhere in the ancient world and in the Middle Ages, Palestinian women stayed at home and often gave birth to children from aliens.
True, organized relocation in the last two centuries has involved complete families with all their genes. Including Mahmoud Abbas himself, whose family moved from Syria to Palestine in 1890.
And Netanyahu, who claims that the Palestinians are the descendants of the invaders, is also half right when it comes to male genes, but not the female mtDNA.
If this lazy person Zand had taken the trouble to delve into genetics, he would be able to argue that his hypothesis is exactly half correct: if the Jews are of the same Middle Eastern origin in the male line, then in the female line we are really a collection of different peoples.
But this is not enough to assert that the Jewish nation was “invented” by someone. In fact, in the Middle Ages, connections between Jewish communities all over space from England to Yemen were stronger than those between neighboring villages anywhere in Europe.
This happened due to trade, monetary interests, but primarily due to the study and commentary on the Bible and Talmud. The spiritual revolution that Rambam organized swept through the entire then time Jewish world. The same thing happened during the rise of Sabbatianism. Correspondence in those days replaced the telephone and the Internet, and the Jews were all literate.
The Jews became a nation when most of the other peoples had not yet formed into a nation, were fragmented into tribes and small fiefdoms.
And even the huge empires that arose and collapsed contributed to the strengthening of ties between the Jewish communities to a greater extent than they could unite the motley peoples, driven by force into a common corral.
Zand is a historian who does not know the history of his own people, but speaks nonsense very loudly. Unfortunately, someone provided a large audience for him.
So, Jews and Palestinians are not exactly brothers: among the Jews, the dads came from the Land of Israel, and the mothers came from other parts of the planet. For the Palestinians, the opposite is true: the male ancestors were mainly alien conquerors and pilgrims, and they found wives on the spot. Instead, the settlers consisted of full families.
For male genes, both populations are clearly part of the same Middle Eastern group, along with Lebanese, Arabs and Syrians. The European origin of Jewish male genes is in question. Of the peoples of the Middle East, the Lebanese are closest to the Jews.
Perhaps the European look of many Ashkenazi is due to mothers of European descent. After all, our set of genes is not limited to sex chromosomes. Somatic chromosomes determine the properties of our body, including race and appearance. We get them from both parents.
The female (mitochondrial) genes of Palestinian women not so differ from those of women in neighboring countries, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. Some differences can be noted in relation to the women of Arabia and Egypt. Even if the resettlement to Palestine took place with full families, including women, it will not be possible to detect this with the help of genetic research. How many local women are among the Palestinians, and how many settled, no one will ever know. The conclusion about the predominantly local origin of Palestinian women has not yet been confirmed, but it is plausible.