ARE WE JEWS OR NON-JEWS?
“For the first time comparing the complete genomes of Jews from communities of different countries, scientists established the unity of their origin, the exact dates when these groups dispersed, and the geography of their ancient migrations. All this rejects the popular hypothesis, that the Jews are a collection of peoples who at different times accepted Judaism.”
“In any case, more than half of the Jews belong to haplogroups with roots in the Middle East. This already refutes the lie that the Jews allegedly degenerated long ago, and have no genetic connection with the Middle East. Summarizing, I note that the Jews are scattered in almost all known haplogroups, but the closer to the Middle East, the ancestors of the Jews are older. The most ancient roots of the Jews — the haplogroups J1 and J2, go into depth of 15-18 thousand years. There were then no Jews as such, but there were their ancestors. In principle, the ancient Jewish haplogroups of the Middle East can be haplogroups E1b, G1, G2, they go into depth of 8-10 thousand years. Haplogroups R1a and R1b were received by (future) Jews in the Middle East about 4,000 and 6,000 years ago, respectively. The rest of the haplogroups the Jews acquired later, many in Europe, during the Diaspora. These are, first of all, haplogroups I1, I2, Q, R2, K, T and their subclades. European haplogroups among Jews often date back about 650 years ago or even later…»
And here is another study:
«Abraham’s children in the genome era: major Jewish Diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern ancestry» (Atzmon et al, 2010)”:
“The obtained data reject the large-scale genetic contribution of Central Europeans and Eastern Europeans, as well as Slavs, to the Ashkenaz population.”
Thus, population genetics agree that all existing branches of the Jewish ethnos (except for the «Ethiopians» and people from India) genetically go back to one source, the Jews of Israel, which was also called Palestine, Canaan, etc.
But there is an opposite opinion, which was set forth by the left philosopher Shlomo Sand, a professor at Tel Aviv University. In his books “Who and how invented the Jewish people” and “Who and how invented Israel”, Sand announced that there was no joint and unique Jewish people, but instead there was a gathering of diverse exalted groups of different ethnic origin. According to Sand (and his predecessors), the Jews of Eastern Europe are descendants of the Khazars and Slavs, who were propagated by highly-learned Jewish guests from Germany. Sand did not bother to explain why did Eastern European Jews spoke Yiddish.
He also announced that the Jews of Yemen are just Arabs who have adopted the Jewish religion. That the Jews of North Africa (that is, our native Israeli «Moroccans») are Berbers, who have accepted the Jewish faith. Well, yes, because their berber Shluh language is one of the Berber dialects. That the Spharadim are just the Spaniards of the Jewish faith, because they spoke the medieval version of the Spanish language. That Ashkenazis are just natural Germans. True, Zand made an exception for beloved himself, calling himself a Turk. Apparently, he looked in the mirror at the very moment when he was writing the book, and became shy.
I cannot say that Sand’s “theories” (or rather unproved hypotheses) are built on sand. There are many historical facts that «suggest» his simplified conclusions. Indeed, in the Khazar state, Judaism was adopted as the state religion. Indeed, in the kingdom of Himyar (Yemen), Judaism became one of two mainstream religions, fighting for supremacy with the Christianity. Indeed, before the Islamic conquest of North Africa, there existed up to five Berber states in which Judaism was the religion of the kings. The Berbers fought for their independence from the Christian rulers of Byzantium and Rome, using their Judaism against Christianity. Then they were defeated by Muslims, and the Arab conquerors converted Berbers to Islam.
We, the people of Israel, know better than all anti-Semites, how diverse are Jews that came from different regions of the planet. We differ by the color of skin, color of hair and eyes, nose shape, psychology, not to mention a dozen «Jewish» languages that have nothing in common with «native» Hebrew. Are we all relatives? As we say in Hebrew, “ma pit’om?”, for what reason?
Well, we all have to remember one of the basic rules of genetics, namely, the difference between a genotype and a phenotype. Not all genes that are hiding somewhere in the cells of our body, are manifested outside. Our children may not be like us, but like one of eight great-grandmothers whom we have never seen living. Hereditary diseases also hide from the eyes, unexpectedly emerging in the tenth generation.
And, of course, genetic research confirms that people of non-Jewish origin really joined the Jewish people. They simply were not as numerous, as had suggested the non-professionals like this very progressive philosopher Sand. There was a good reason for his mistake.
At all times and of all countries Jews were subjected to cruel persecution, robbery, exile and murder. The daily life of the Jews, surrounded by a hostile majority, was a difficult test for life. There were not many people willing to sacrifice themselves and join their beloved woman, while entering Jewish community. Let’s say: not so much the Jews, but anti-Semitism prevented the mixing of Jews with other nations.
It was antisemitism, that contributed to the preservation of the original Jewish genes. When a Judaist Zou Nouvas was defeated in Yemen, and a Berber queen was subdued to Muslims, when the upper class of the Khazars converted to Islam out of fear of destruction, then all those who accepted Judaism for the sake of privilege, quickly abandoned the alien Judaism, and only real Jews persisted in their original, derived from the ancestors, an outdated nationalist religion.
As for our left-wing philosopher Sand, his books are a product of ignorance, mixed with ideological extremism, or simply corruption. Instead of studying genetics, anthropology, ethnology and universal history, Sand began to write books about Jews, based on his very “advanced” ideology. Well, it brought him good returns and worldwide fame:
“This book was published in Hebrew in March 2008 by the Resling publishing house (Tel Aviv) entitled “ When and how the Jewish people were invented ”(מתי ואיך הומצא העם היהודי).
In the summer 2008, an authorized translation of the book in French was published (Comment le peuple juif fut inventé — De la Bible au sionisme, Paris, Fayard, 2008). The English edition of the book came out almost simultaneously in the UK and in the USA in October 2009 under the title The Invention of the Jewish People (published by Verso Books). The Russian translation of the book was published in Moscow (under the title “Who and how invented the Jewish people”) at the publishing house “Eksmo” in March 2010. .. The translation of the book into Japanese was published in April 2010.
In April 2010 (published by Propyläen Verlag) a German translation of the book was published in Berlin. In May 2010, an Italian edition is expected. At the time of this writing (end of April 2010), according to agreements with publishing houses, work on the translation of the book into Spanish, Slovenian, Croatian, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, Indonesian and Hungarian is being completed.
In March 2010, a new edition of the book was published in France (this time in a pocket format and in softcover). In June 2010, a similar English edition should be published.
In Israel, the book for 19 weeks included in the list of national bestsellers. In France, where Zand’s book became the best-selling in the History category for 2009, three consecutive editions (hardcover) were issued. Both in the United States and in the United Kingdom, the book has been included in numerous bestseller lists since the very beginning of its publication in April 2010, including those published by the Amazon website (www.amazon.com).
In 2009, Shlomo Sand was awarded the French Aujourd’hui Award for his book, a prestigious journalistic award for an outstanding political or historical essay. Earlier this prize was awarded to the philosopher Raymond Aron, literary critic George Steiner, writer Milan Kundera and historian Francois Fuhre.
In April 2010, the book was nominated for the British Jewish Wingate Prize (JQ-Wingate Literary Prize Shortlist) . ”
I can confirm: Shlomo Sand is quoted on all anti-Semitic sites and forums. He gained world fame. The problem is that his books contradict science and historical truth. Science has already refuted them.
However, his illustrious garbage is quite suitable for anti-Semitic, and especially anti-Israeli propaganda. Professor Sand’s philosophical composition “freed” left-wing Jews, and indeed all “left-wing” and right-wing anti-Semites, from the moral obligation to protect Israel from the aggression of the Islamists. Professor Sand has given legitimacy to the Palestinian and Islamist terror, to the aggression of Iranian ayatollahs, to Russian anti-Semites, to European and American «liberal» anti-Semites. In the past, the «wrong» Jewish race gave Hitler a reason to arrange the genocide of the Jews. This time, it is the “left” that accuse us of “wrong” origins.